Upon request by the Committee on Legal Affairs, this study analysis is mapping across all 28 EU Member States the representation of women and men in legal professions. The aim of this study is to identify areas where women or men are currently underrepresented and to analyse the underlying reasons and constraints.
Posted on 09-08-2017
The aim of this study is to exploit existing data and information on the access of women with disabilities to the labour market, in order to assess how multiple discrimination – gender and disability – affects the employment opportunities of these women. In addition, the study analyses whether and how the EU legislative and national policy frameworks address the multiple discrimination faced by women with disabilities. This combines a gender mainstreaming approach, such as the internalisation of a gender perspective in all disability policies and legislation, with specific measures targeted to women with disabilities. The study also includes clear indications on implementation and monitoring mechanisms. The analysis is based on available European comparative data and in-depth analysis of seven European Member States.
This in-depth analysis addresses the implications of several scenarios of the UK withdrawing from the EU in relation to the EU Customs Union, the Internal Market law for Goods and Services, and on Consumer Protection law, identifying the main cross-cutting challenges that have to be addressed irrespective of the policy choices that will be made in due course. The analysis takes the fully-fledged EU membership as a point of departure and compares this baseline scenario to a membership of the UK in the European Economic Area (EEA), the application of tailor-made arrangements, as well as the fall-back scenario, in which the mutual relationship is governed by WTO law. Following an analysis of the EU legal framework defining the withdrawal of a Member State from the EU the study develops an analytical framework that allows for the identification of the legal impact of different Brexit scenarios on policy fields falling within the ambit of the IMCO Committee. In this context, the general impact of the EEA model, the tailor-made model and the WTO model on key pieces of the currently existing acquis communautaire in these policy areas are highlighted.
Posted on 07-08-2017
Public authorities conclude contracts to ensure the supply of works and delivery of services. These contracts, concluded in exchange for remuneration with one or more operators, are called public contracts and represent an important part of the EU’s GDP. However, only a small percentage of public procurement contracts have been awarded to non-national undertakings. The application of the principles of the internal market to these contracts ensures better allocation of economic resources and more rational use of public funds. A new public procurement package was adopted in 2014 by Parliament and the Council with the aim of simplifying procedures and making them more flexible in order to encourage access to public procurement for SMEs, and to ensure that greater consideration is given to social and environmental criteria.
Research carried out for the European Parliament indicates that effective consumer protection policy is essential for an efficient and well-functioning European market. Improved transparency and better informed transactions resulting from well designed and implemented consumer policy result not only in better solutions for consumers but also in improved market efficiency. Effective consumer protection is therefore an essential element of a properly functioning market. It aims to guarantee consumers rights vis-à-vis merchants and in addition to provide enhanced protection for vulnerable consumers. The financial crisis has demonstrated that consumer protections rules have the potential to make markets fairer and improve the quality of competition. Empowering consumers and effectively protecting their safety and economic interests have become essential goals of European policy.
European regulations on maritime transport focus on the application of the principle of free movement of services and the correct application of competition rules, while ensuring a high level of safety, good working conditions and environmental standards.
The digital single market is one of the most promising and challenging areas of progress, creating potential efficiency gains of EUR 415 billion. It opens up new opportunities to boost the economy through e-commerce, while at the same time facilitating administrative and financial compliance for businesses and empowering customers through e-government. Market and government services developed within the digital single market are evolving from fixed to mobile platforms and becoming increasingly ubiquitous, offering access to information and content any time, anywhere and on any device (ubiquitous commerce and ubiquitous government). These advances call for a regulatory framework that is conducive to the development of cloud computing, borderless mobile data connectivity and simplified access to information and content, while safeguarding privacy, personal data, cybersecurity and net neutrality.
Over the years, the EU has been moving away from the production of labour-intensive, low-value products so as to specialise in higher-value, branded goods. With its open economy, trade is essential to the EU. To overcome barriers to trade and level the playing field for its businesses, the Union is negotiating a number of free trade agreements. The EU is also a founder of and key player in the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
Posted on 01-08-2017
This paper provides an analysis of two crucial and interconnected aspects of the current legal framework on the investigations conducted by the European Anti-Fraud Office (OLAF): the procedural safeguards for the individuals subject to the administrative investigations conducted by OLAF and the admissibility in evidence of OLAF Final Reports in national criminal proceedings. The state of the art and its shortcomings are analysed in the double perspective of the coherent protection of the EU’s financial interests and of the respect of fundamental rights provided by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights.
Posted on 31-07-2017
National provisions against tax avoidance and tax evasion, and money laundering laws and their enforcement vary widely from one Member State to the next. This study examines the administrative capabilities of EU Member States when it comes to tackling these challenges and reviews the specific measures they have taken in response to the publication of the Panama Papers. The main objectives are to evaluate whether the legal framework and the institutional configurations in place are adequate, to pinpoint the deficiencies and to suggest ways in which they could be addressed.